I want to post a few of my issues with this paper. First of all, it is not a good sign when you start lumping all of CNO together when talking about cyber deterrence, or when a lot of your paper is quotes from various ex-government management types leading to a sort of policy telephone game. And when you listen to Fred Kaplan talk about cyber deterrence as a result of his book, (00:33 here) he says we're only beginning to ask the right questions.
I will disagree with a cogent example: Google.
Google practices strategic cyber deterrence against many nation states using all the tools explained in Joshua Tromp's paper. Once the CEO realized they had been had by the Chinese Government, who were themselves looking for State dissidents, he poured an insane amount of resources into the problem, and to this day Google operates a capability that outclasses most nation states when it comes to deterrence.
We can compare Google's access to information to a nation state's SIGINT arm, but it's obvious that they could, if they so desire, unmask the efforts of any country's intelligence services with a quick look at their massive database of human behavior and location. Likewise, once the hacking was discovered Google pulled out of China, which puts economic and social pressure on the Chinese government. And they increased the cost for activity against them by massively improving their own internal defensive efforts, buying companies who had groundbreaking technology in the sector, and making sure to build out cooperation with US intelligence.
It's also easy to forget how Google is now warning users if they are being targeted by nation states via Phishing attacks or password guessing. This level of attention means that if you target Google and they catch you, you might lose the ability to target people THROUGH Google. How long before your Android phone warns you that you're being followed by state security in Beijing by tracking your phone and theirs?
So to sum up:
- Google increased their CND investment
- They operated in concert with other state actors to increase social costs of Chinese cyber offensive operations
- They maintain a strategic deterrence in their ability to unmask HUMINT efforts by the Chinese
Of course, now that the deterrence engine is in place, they can also operate it at some level against the US Government.
|FireEye's recent graph is very interesting - although indicting people is strategically dangerous, it may also work.
Ok, so back to Joshua's paper. It is full of stuff like this:
|It all SOUNDS legit, but you can't make policy or strategic decisions on this kind of "data".
Just to take one example from that paragraph, "The nations that are the most powerful are actually the most vulnerable to cyber-attacks". This is not really true. While yes, it is hard to affect Afghanistan's government via cyber, having a full-take of their cell phone network lets you control it as well as anything else could. And would you rather go up against Google or your local dentist when it comes to cyber war?
Basically, repeating all the "things people know" about the Cyber domain, and then trying to draw deterrence out of that grand picture does not provide for a way of really looking at the problem. it may be that without clearance, it is impossible to draw an accurate picture using metrics of how well deterrence works in the field, but even if it is possible, we would need a more focused analysis of the problem than is presented in the paper.